Tag Archive | Osteomyelitis

JBJS 100: Epiphyseal Plate Injuries, Spinal Osteomyelitis

JBJS 100Under one name or another, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery has published quality orthopaedic content spanning three centuries. In 1919, our publication was called the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, and the first volume of that journal was Volume 1 of what we know today as JBJS.

Thus, the 24 issues we turn out in 2018 will constitute our 100th volume. To help celebrate this milestone, throughout the year we will be spotlighting 100 of the most influential JBJS articles on OrthoBuzz, making the original full-text content openly accessible for a limited time.

Unlike the scientific rigor of Journal content, the selection of this list was not entirely scientific. About half we picked from “JBJS Classics,” which were chosen previously by current and past JBJS Editors-in-Chief and Deputy Editors. We also selected JBJS articles that have been cited more than 1,000 times in other publications, according to Google Scholar search results. Finally, we considered “activity” on the Web of Science and The Journal’s websites.

We hope you enjoy and benefit from reading these groundbreaking articles from JBJS, as we mark our 100th volume. Here are two more:

Injuries Involving the Epiphyseal Plate
RB Salter, WR Harris: JBJS, 1963 April; 45 (3): 587
In addition to presenting the fracture classification, the authors laid the groundwork with basic principles of mechanical failure and vascularity of the physis. The authors then explain how physeal damage may arise from misalignment, crushing, or vascular interruption. This enduring orthopaedic schema lives on because of its clarity of presentation and its implications for treatment.

Pyogenic Osteomyelitis of the Spine
J Kulowski: JBJS, 1936 April; 18 (2): 343
In this 22-page analysis and discussion of 102 cases, the author notes that pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine can affect any part of the vertebral system. In 1936—8 years after the discovery of penicillin—Kulowski said, “It may be axiomatically stated that operative intervention is imperative, as soon as the diagnosis is made with a reasonable degree of accuracy, when suppuration is present…,” adding that “the primary spinal focus requires the first attention of the surgeon.”

Use Data, Guidelines, and Intuition to Manage Infection after Toe/Forefoot Amputation

Osteomyelitis for OBuzzThe number of articles published each year in orthopaedics that evaluate infections seems to approach, if not exceed, 1,000. Yet, despite all of these publications, consensus statements, and guidelines, we seem to have very few concrete recommendations about which every surgeon will say, “This is what needs to be done.” So we send out samples, run cultures, sonicate implants, and sometimes even perform DNA sequencing, and then we mix the data with selected recommendations and intuition to make our final treatment decisions. Foolproof? No, but it is the best we can do in many situations.

The article by Mijuskovic et al. in the September 5, 2018 edition of The Journal helps simplify this type of decision making in the setting of residual osteomyelitis after toe or forefoot amputation. The authors evaluated 51 consecutive patients with gangrene and/or infection who underwent either digit or partial foot amputations. They found that, after surgery, 41% of the patients without histological evidence of osteomyelitis (which the authors considered the reference, “true positive” analysis) had a positive culture from the same sample.  In addition, only 12 patients (24%) had both positive histological findings and positive cultures, the criteria set forth by the Infectious Disease Society of America for the definitive diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

As interesting as the main findings of the study are, some of the “minor” results are even more curious.  The decision regarding which patients received antibiotics after amputation seemed largely arbitrary, with 10 of the 14 patients who had a positive histological result not receiving any postoperative antibiotics. (Five of those patients ended up needing a secondary procedure.) In addition, because of the need for decalcification prior to analysis, the median time to receiving histological results was almost a week. Based on the findings in this study, in many instances patients are sent home or to a rehabilitation facility with antibiotics based only on the results of a potentially “false-positive” culture.

The authors conclude that their results “cast doubt on the strategy of relying solely on culture of bone biopsy specimens when deciding whether antibiotic treatment for osteomyelitis is necessary after toe or forefoot amputation.” But this paper also highlights the fact that we are still looking for definitive answers about which data to use and which to disregard when it comes to the detection and treatment of post-amputation osteomyelitis. We surgeons decide on which side to err, and we need to appreciate all three facets—data, guidelines, and patient factors—when discussing treatment options with patients.

Chad A. Krueger, MD
JBJS Deputy Editor for Social Media

New Hope for New Bone After Osteomyelitis Debridement

Osteomyelitis Tibia for OBuzzThis basic science tip comes from Fred Nelson, MD, an orthopaedic surgeon in the Department of Orthopedics at Henry Ford Hospital and a clinical associate professor at Wayne State Medical School. Some of Dr. Nelson’s tips go out weekly to more than 3,000 members of the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS), and all are distributed to more than 30 orthopaedic residency programs. Those not sent to the ORS are periodically reposted in OrthoBuzz with the permission of Dr. Nelson.

One clinical frustration following osteomyelitis debridement is poor bone healing. Impaired bone homeostasis provokes serious variations in bone remodeling that involve multiple inflammatory cytokines.

The chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL2 are known to be strong chemoattractants for neutrophils during inflammatory states, and they play a role during osteoclastogenesis. B cells are also activators of osteoclastognesis and are regulated, in part, by tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP-1).

Researchers drilled a 1 mm hole into the proximal tibia of 126 mice. In half of the mice (63), a dose of S. aureus was injected into the canal, while the controls had no bacteria injected. At two weeks, all proximal tibiae were debrided; cultures were taken 3 and 7 days after debridement to assure no residual infection. Cytokine assays and Western blots for CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, TIMP-1, RANKL, and TNF-α were performed in selected mice in each group. Flow cytometry and histology were also done in selected mice in each group.

In the osteomyelitis group, Western blot analysis identified increased levels of CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL2. Histology revealed increased osteoclastogenesis after osteomyelitis debridement, with calcitonin-receptor and RANKL detection via immunohistochemical and fluorescence staining. There was diminished osteogenesis and proliferation in the osteomyelitis group, but TNF-α expression seemed to have no effect on altered bone regeneration after bone infection. Flow cytometry revealed elevated B cell activity in the osteomyelitis group, with subsequent increased osteoclast activity and accelerated bone resorption.

The researchers propose a RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis after debridement for osteomyelitis that is associated with elevated B cells and decreased osteogenesis. These findings could lead to new interventions to improve bone healing during the course of osteomyelitis treatment, particularly following debridement.

Reference
Wagner JM, Jaurich H, Wallner C, Abraham S, Becerikli M, Dadras M, Harati K, Duhan V, Khairnar V, Lehnhardt M, Behr B. Diminished bone regeneration after debridement of posttraumatic osteomyelitis is accompanied by altered cytokine levels, elevated B cell activity, and increased osteoclast activity. J Orthop Res. 2017 Mar 6. doi: 10.1002/jor.23555. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28263017

What’s New in Pediatric Orthopaedics

Every month, JBJS publishes a Specialty Update—a review of the most pertinent and impactful studies published in the orthopaedic literature during the previous year in 13 subspecialties. Here is a summary of selected findings cited in the February 17, 2016 Specialty Update on pediatric orthopaedics:

Guidelines and AUCs

–The AAOS updated its clinical practice guidelines on the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femoral fractures1 and adopted appropriate use criteria (AUC) for pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures with vascular injury.2

Spine

–A matched case control study of surgical spinal procedures found that neuromuscular scoliosis, weight for age ≥95th percentile, ASA score of ≥3, and prolonged operative time were associated with a higher risk of surgical site infection.3

–Several groups, including the Scoliosis Research Society and POSNA, endorsed the definition of early-onset scoliosis as “scoliosis with onset less than the age of ten years, regardless of etiology.”4, 5

–A prospective randomized study found that preoperative education and orientation for scoliosis surgery paradoxically increased immediate postoperative anxiety among patients and caregivers, relative to controls who received standard perioperative information.6

–A randomized trial investigating perioperative blood loss and transfusion rates in patients undergoing posterior spinal arthrodesis for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis found that tranexamic acid and  epsilon-aminocaproic acid reduced operative blood loss but not transfusion rates when compared with placebo.

Hip

–A study of 30 patients with severe stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis found that good or excellent results were achieved over 2.5 years in a higher proportion of those receiving a modified Dunn realignment compared with those treated with in situ fixation. The reoperation rate was greater in the in situ fixation cohort.7

–A prospective study analyzing complications after periacetabular osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia using the modified Clavien-Dindo grading scheme found grade III or IV complications in 5.9% of 205 patients, with a nonsignificant trend associating complications with male sex and obesity.

–A registry-based study found that, compared with matched controls, patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease had an elevated hazard ratio of 1.5 for ADHD, 1.3 for depression, and 1.2 for mortality. It remains unclear whether patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease would benefit from routine psychiatric screening.8

Sports Medicine

–A case control study of 822 injured athletes and 368 uninjured athletes found that overuse injuries represented 67.4% of all injuries. The risk of serious overuse injury was two times greater if the weekly hours of sports participation were greater than the athlete’s age in years.9

–A meta-analysis of initial nonoperative treatment compared with operative treatment of ACL tears in children and adolescents noted instability and pathologic laxity in 75% of patients with nonoperative treatment compared with 14% of patients following reconstruction.10

Trauma

–A review of more than 4,400 supracondylar humeral fractures with isolated anterior interossesous nerve palsies but without sensory nerve injury or dysvasculartity found that postponing treatment for up to 24 hours did not delay neurologic recovery.

–A randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of analgesics during intraossesous pin removal found that acetaminophen and ibuprofen were clinically equivalent to placebo in terms of pain reduction and heart rate.

Foot and Ankle

–A study exploring risk factors for failure of allograft bone after calcaneal lengthening osteotomy found a lower risk of failure with tricortical iliac crest allograft relative to patellar allograft. The risk of radiographic graft failure increased with patient age.11

–A prospective nonrandomized study of symptomatic planovalgus feet comparing subtalar arthroereisis with lateral column lengthening found similar postoperative improvements and complication rates in both groups after one year.12

Musculoskeletal Infection & Neuromuscular Conditions

–A cohort study of 869 children with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, pyomyositis, or abscess concluded that routinely culturing for anaerobic, fungal, and acid-fast bacterial organisms is not recommended except in patients with a history of penetrating injury, immunocompromise, or failure of primary treatment.

–A prospective study comparing tendon transfers, botulinum toxin injections, and ongoing therapy in children with upper-extremity cerebral palsy found that tendon transfer demonstrated greater improvements than the alternatives in joint positioning during functional tasks and grip and pinch strength.

References

  1. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.Guideline on the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures. 2015.http://www.aaos.org/Research/guidelines/PDFFguideline.asp.
  2. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.Appropriate use criteria: pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures with vascular injury. 2015.http://www.aaos.org/research/Appropriate_Use/pshfaucvascular.asp.
  3. Croft LD, Pottinger JM, Chiang HY, Ziebold CS, Weinstein SL, Herwaldt LA. Risk factors for surgical site infections after pediatric spine operations. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jan 15;40(2):E112-9
  4. El-Hawary R, Akbarnia BA. Early onset scoliosis – time for consensus. Spine Deformity. 2015 Mar;3(2):105-6
  5. Skaggs DL, Guillaume T, El-Hawary R, Emans J, Mendelow M, Smith J. Early onset scoliosis consensus statement, SRS Growing Spine Committee, 2015. Spine Deformity. 2015;3(2):107.
  6. Rhodes L, Nash C, Moisan A, Scott DC, Barkoh K, Warner WC Jr, Sawyer JR, Kelly DM.Does preoperative orientation and education alleviate anxiety in posterior spinal fusion patients? A prospective, randomized study. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Apr-May;35(3):276-9.
  7. Novais EN, Hill MK, Carry PM, Heare TC, Sink EL. Modified Dunn procedure is superior to in situ pinning for short-term clinical and radiographic improvement in severe stable SCFE. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Jun;473(6):2108-17. Epub 2014 Dec 12
  8. Hailer YD, Nilsson O. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and the risk of ADHD, depression, and mortality. Acta Orthop. 2014 Sep;85(5):501-5. Epub 2014 Jul 18.
  9. Jayanthi NA, LaBella CR, Fischer D, Pasulka J, Dugas L. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Apr;43(4):794-801. Epub 2015 Feb 2.
  10. Ramski DE, Kanj WW, Franklin CC, Baldwin KD, Ganley TJ. Anterior cruciate ligament tears in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of nonoperative versus operative treatment. Am J Sports Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2769-76. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
  11. Lee IH, Chung CY, Lee KM, Kwon SS, Moon SY, Jung KJ, Chung MK, Park MS. Incidence and risk factors of allograft bone failure after calcaneal lengthening. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 May;473(5):1765-74. Epub 2014 Nov 14.
  12. Chong DY, Macwilliams BA, Hennessey TA, Teske N, Stevens PM. Prospective comparison of subtalar arthroereisis with lateral column lengthening for painful flatfeet. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015 Jul;24(4):345-53.

Antibiotics as Effective as Conservative Surgery for Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis

Selected patients with osteomyelitis from diabetic foot infections can be treated medically or surgically with equal effectiveness, according to a small randomized study in Diabetes Care, purportedly the first study to prospectively compare the two treatments. Fifty-two patients with diabetic foot ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis received either a 90-day course of antibiotics or had the infected bone removed surgically, followed by a short course of antibiotics. Healing (complete epithelialization) occurred in 75% of the antibiotic group and 86% of the surgery group (p=0.33), and complications during treatment were also similar in the two groups. Clinical guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America for dealing with diabetes-related foot osteomyelitis can be found here.