Bunion Treatments Abound Amid Multiple Etiologies

Bunionectomy for OBuzzOrthoBuzz occasionally receives posts from guest bloggers. This guest post comes from Shahriar Rahman, MS, in response to a recent study in Foot and Ankle Clinics of North America.

It makes sense that orthopaedic conditions with multiple etiologic factors have a corresponding variety of treatment options. So it is with hallux valgus (bunion deformity). In the June 2018 edition of Foot and Ankle Clinics of North America, Smyth and Aiyer1 focus on the pathoanatomy of hallux valgus and various approaches to selecting an operative option.

With more than 100 different operative procedures described to correct hallux valgus, it can be challenging to pick the “right” procedure for each patient. The etiology of hallux valgus includes intrinsic factors (e.g., a long first metatarsal, the shape of the metatarsal head, and soft-tissue imbalances across the hallux metatarsophalangeal [MP] joint) and extrinsic factors (e.g., high-heeled, narrow toe-box shoes). Other kinematic factors of the foot, such as hypermobility of the first ray, are associated with hallux valgus, as is pes planus (flatfoot). Whatever the etiology, hallux valgus almost always progresses in a relatively predictable manner.1

Careful preoperative analysis is required to successfully treat hallux valgus, with the goal of restoring static and dynamic balance around the first MP joint. For optimum outcomes, a soft-tissue procedure (e.g., modified McBride procedure) is now commonly combined with osseous corrective techniques. The chevron osteotomy, which has been modified in multiple ways, achieves acceptable outcomes with reportedly high patient satisfaction levels, as does a percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy.2

More severe deformities are usually treated with proximal first metatarsal osteotomies—such as  a proximal chevron, Ludloff osteotomy, or Scarf osteotomy—to increase the possible angular correction of the metatarsal. While these procedures are more “powerful” correction options, some studies have shown recurrence rates up to 30% at 10 years of follow up.1,2 In cases of severe deformity accompanied by arthritis of the tarsometatarsal (TM) joint, a modified Lapidus procedure may be an option for stabilizing the first TM joint. Hallux MP arthrodesis is also considered in patients who have severe deformity, arthritis, and neuromuscular disorders, and for the revision of a previously failed hallux valgus surgery.

There is currently no consensus as to which procedure is the gold standard for treating hallux valgus. Despite multiple comparative studies assessing the outcomes of different techniques, the decision ultimately depends on surgeon and patient preferences.

Shahriar Rahman, MS is a consultant orthopaedic surgeon at the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare in Bangladesh and a member of the JBJS Social Media Advisory Board.

References

  1. Smyth NA & Aiyer AA 2018, ‘Introduction: Why Are There so Many Different Surgeries for Hallux Valgus?’, Foot and Ankle Clinics, 23, no.2, pp.171-182.
  2. Adams SB, 2017, JBJS Clinical Summary: Hallux Valgus (Bunion Deformity), viewed 27 may 2018, https://jbjs.org/summary.php?id=188

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