Archive | October 2017

Long-term Results Show No Advantage to “Minimalist” THA

Minimal Incision THA for OBuzzThe debate regarding minimally invasive/minimal incision total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been simmering for a decade and a half. When assessing the impact of adult reconstruction procedures, patients and treating physicians alike are most interested in longer-term results. Improved return of function in the first 3 to 6 weeks is of some value to all patients—and perhaps of great value to younger patients—and that has been one of the purported advantages of the “minimalist” approach. But it is the long-term results that really matter.

In the October 18, 2017 issue of The Journal, Stevenson et al. provide 10-year results from a 2005 randomized trial of small-incision posterior hip arthroplasty, and they confirm it adds no clinical, radiographic, or implant-survivorship benefit when compared with a standard posterior approach. An extra caveat here is that these procedures, originally done in 2003-2004, were undertaken by a highly experienced surgeon who had performed >300 minimal-incision THAs. In the hands of surgeons with less experience, smaller incisions may result in suboptimal component positioning and other complications, a point emphasized by Stevenson et al. and by Daniel Berry in his JBJS editorial accompanying the original study.

This long-term data is of great value to patients and surgeons alike. It is my hope that such high-quality evidence will temper the claims used in marketing materials that hype minimally invasive approaches, to which hip surgeons are routinely subjected.

Marc Swiontkowski, MD
JBJS Editor-in-Chief

More Efficient Orthopaedic Education Needed

WI Banner for OBuzz

The October 4, 2017 issue of JBJS contains another in a series of “What’s Important” personal essays from orthopaedic clinicians. This “What’s Important” article comes from Drs. Peter Scoles and Shepard Hurwitz.

The authors suggest that integration of medical school curricula with the first year of postgraduate training is a practical approach to improving efficiency and reducing costs to both doctors in training and the academic medical centers that help train them. In explaining specific ways to change the paradigm for training orthopaedic surgeons, the authors conclude that an integrative approach would accelerate the process for qualified candidates, while lowering costs and ensuring adequate training opportunities for all.

If you would like JBJS to consider your “What’s Important” story for publication, please submit a manuscript via Editorial Manager. When asked to select an article type, please choose Orthopaedic Forum and include “What’s Important:” at the beginning of the title.

Because they are personal in nature, “What’s Important” submissions will not be subject to the usual stringent JBJS peer-review process. Instead, they will be reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief, who will correspond with the author if revisions are necessary and make the final decision regarding acceptance.

With OCA, Don’t Fret About Condyle Matching

OCA for OBuzz

Osteochondral allograft transplantations (OCAs) are becoming a mainstay of treatment for knee-cartilage injuries. To help ensure that the allograft plug is transplanted with <1 mm of step-off from the surrounding recipient cartilage, many surgeons restrict themselves to orthotopic OCAs—matching the graft-recipient condyles in a lateral-to-lateral or medial-to-medial fashion.

However, in the October 4, 2017 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, Wang et al. demonstrated that both orthotopic and non-orthotopic (e.g., lateral condyle-to-medial condyle) OCA resulted in significantly improved outcomes in 77 cases followed for a mean of 4.3 years. The authors found that reoperation rates and pre- and postoperative scores in physical functioning and pain did not differ significantly between the orthotopic (n=50) and non-orthotopic (n=27) groups. These results suggest that condyle-specific matching may not be necessary.

One problem with orthotopic OCA is that 75% of the available allograft is supplied in the form of lateral condyles, while most full-thickness cartilage lesions presenting for treatment occur in the medial condyle. Consequently, surgeon preferences for orthotopic OCA limit the number of available matches and lead to an estimated 13% of available grafts being discarded.

Noting that many factors contribute to successful resurfacing of cartilage defects in the knee, the authors say that “it may be overly simplistic to assume that a conventionally matched orthotopic allograft will ensure a smooth surface contour at the recipient site.” They go on to conclude that “if surgeons forewent condyle-specific matching, more allografts would be readily available, which would shorten wait times, provide fresher grafts with increased chondrocyte viability, and lower procedure costs.”

Aggressive Treatment Improves QOL in Many Cases of Spinal Metastases

swiontkowski marc colorA significant portion of metastatic disease comes with no clear identification of a primary tumor; this is unfortunately the case with many spinal metastases. In the October 4, 2017 issue of The Journal, Ma et al. evaluate the survival and patient-reported quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes for patients with spinal metastases from cancer of unknown primary origin.

Their prospective longitudinal study confirms that a more aggressive strategy that combines surgery and radiation therapy results in better QOL (as measured with the four-domain FACT-G instrument) than radiation alone. There was no significant difference in survival time between the two groups. In a subgroup analysis of patients receiving surgery, those who underwent circumferential decompression had significantly better functional and physical well-being and higher total QOL scores than those who underwent decompressive laminectomy.

These findings emphasize the critical role of shared decision making in such difficult situations. A dire diagnosis with poor statistical chances of long-term survival does not mean that patients should not be informed of treatment options and have the opportunity to opt for an aggressive surgical approach, especially if that decision is likely to result in improved QOL. Let us endeavor to compassionately provide patients with the facts, as we understand them, and let them select from among the medical and surgical options that are at their disposal. More often than not, in this sad scenario, it seems aggressive is better in terms of quality of life.

Webinar—When Great Surgeons Have Challenging Behaviors

Oct Webinar Speakers
Sometimes the most talented, skilled physicians with whom you work are also prone to displaying challenging behaviors. Often, these physicians are not cognizant of how their colleagues perceive them. So how can you—as the supervisor, friend, and/or peer of such clinicians—help ensure that patients continue to benefit from their clinical and surgical gifts without behavioral difficulties diminishing their contributions?

On Thursday, October 26, 2017 at 8:00 pm EDT, the American Orthopaedic Association (AOA) and The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (JBJS) will host a complimentary webinar that will deliver practical and effective methods you can use to help physicians who are clinically outstanding, but behaviorally difficult, start to make remedial changes.

The presentations about how to be helpful to such colleagues will be led by:

  • Gerald Hickson, senior VP for Quality,Safety, and Risk Prevention at Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • William Hopkinson, professor of orthopaedic surgery at Loyola Medicine
  • George Russell, professor and chair of orthopaedic traumatology at the University of Mississippi Medical Center

Moderated by Dr. Douglas Lundy, orthopaedic trauma surgeon at Resurgens Orthopaedics, this webinar will include a 15-minute live Q&A session during which attendees can ask questions of the panelists.

Seats are limited, so register now!

New Level-I Data on TKA Blood Conservation

TXAMinimizing perioperative blood loss during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) helps curtail the risks and costs of allogeneic blood transfusions. Currently, the most popular pharmacological approach to blood conservation is the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA). But in a randomized trial published in the October 4, 2017 edition of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, Boese et al. found that a similar and much less expensive compound, epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), performed almost as effectively and just as safely as TXA in patients undergoing unilateral knee replacement.

Although the 98 patients in the study who received TXA averaged less estimated blood loss than the 96 patients who received EACA, no transfusions were required in either group, and there were no statistically significant or clinically relevant between-group differences in the change in hemoglobin levels. On the safety/complication side, there were no statistically significant between-group differences in any measured parameter, including postoperative serum creatinine levels or renal, bleeding, or thrombotic complications. However, there were 3 pulmonary emboli in the EACA group compared with only 1 in the TXA group. While that was not a statistically significant difference, “an observed difference of this magnitude could limit the usefulness of EACA in TKA,” the authors caution.

This study did not compare the current cost of the two compounds, but back in 2012, when the authors’ institution added antifibrinolytics to their blood management program, TXA cost $43/g, compared with $0.20/g for EACA. The cost differential is striking, even when you consider that TXA is at least 7 times more potent than EACA on a molar basis, so less of the former drug is required.

Boese et al. conclude that “TXA does not have superior blood conservation effects or safety profile compared with EACA in TKA,” but they cite a need for future equivalence, superiority, and noninferiority trials with these drugs.

Faster Relief for Patients with Painful Bone Metastases

MR Guided Ultrasound for OBuzz2A technique that combines magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with high-intensity focused ultrasound hyperthermia provides faster pain relief than conventional radiation therapy (RT) for patients with a painful bone metastasis.

In the September 20, 2017 issue of JBJS, Lee et al. report on a matched-pair study of 63 patients with a painful bone metastasis who received either magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) or RT as first-line treatment. Both modalities were effective overall, yielding response rates of >70% at the three-month follow-up evaluation. However, MRgFUS was more efficient, providing a 71% response rate at 1 week after treatment, compared with 26% for RT at that same time point.

The total treatment time and cost of the two modalities were similar, and neither was associated with adverse events above grade 2. Among MRgFUS patients, there was a 14% rate of positioning-related pain and a 33% rate of sonication-related pain, which typically resolved within 1 day after treatment.

Lee et al. report that the median overall survival of patients in the study was 12.7 months in the MRgFUS group and 9.8 months in the RT group, a statistically nonsignificant difference. But the authors emphasize that the study was more about pain relief than extending life. “Reduc[ing] pain, restor[ing] function, and maintain[ing] quality of life is imperative” for those with bone metastasis, the authors conclude. They also caution that MRgFUS is not appropriate for bone metastases of the skull or most of the spine, or for any lesion that is not at least 1 cm away from “tissues at risk.”